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Search Completed | Title | NUTRIENT MIST REACTOR: A REMARKABLE NEW APPROACH TO GROW HAIRY ROOTS IN REACTOR
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Text | NUTRIENT MIST REACTOR: A REMARKABLE NEW APPROACH TO GROW HAIRY ROOTS IN REACTOR | 001
International Journal of Advances in Science Engineering and Technology, ISSN: 2321-9009 Volume- 3, Issue-1, Jan.-2015 NUTRIENT MIST REACTOR: A REMARKABLE NEW APPROACH
TO GROW HAIRY ROOTS IN REACTOR 1MANISH VASHISHTHA, 2NIDHI SHARMA
1,2Department of Chemical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Hairy roots are genetically transformed roots and highly recommended sources for various secondary metabolites products. Artimisinin is one of them and frequently utilized as pharmaceutical drug for malaria impairment. Hairy roots are fragile tissue and very much sensitive in regarding to culture inside the bioreactor. Designing of bioreactor and optimising the acquired physical and chemical parameter is the promising approach in industry. To date a large number of various bioreactor has been designed i.e Trickle bed, Bubble column, Air lift, Fluidized and Nutrient mist reactor (NMR) for the biomass cultivation of hairy roots. All reactor has their significant characteristics to stimulate high growth rate of biomass and scaling up the metabolite production but apart from these, the main remarkable feature is adequate nutrient supply to growing biomass which is highly observed in nutrient mist reactor in which nutrient supply is facilitated in the form of small droplets (0.5-3μm) known as mist. Since mist reactor has been well studied and accepted as a suitable reactor for hairy root culture.
Keywords: Transformed Root, Artimisinin, Bioreactor, Hairy Root, Nutrient Mist Reactor (NMR)
It has been reported that hairy root (HR) culture facilitated drugs production on large scale. A HR has application of higher production of secondary metabolites over conventional resources of drug production from plants. HRs could have been grown in various bioreactors for commercialization purpose. HR is alternate method for produces genetic instability and reduces less productivity problem led within different industrial reactors (1,2). Many resistances have been faced during the HR culture in various reactors. The production of HR and secondary metabolite is depend on availability and composition of nutrient media and gases at root surface inside the reactor (3,6).. HR is very fragile, sensitive structure which is prone to be easily grown in reactor (1,2).This characteristics of HR stimulated to modify different reactor configuration and avoid injuring while optimising growth pattern and supply of nutrient(1-2,7).Since many bioreactors from stir tank to air lift have been modified to pertain ample growth of roots. Amongst all modified reactor nutrient mist reactor (NMR) has successfully observed to suitable for HR growth inside the reactor. NMR is gas phase reactor in which nutrient medium is supplied in the mist form to root surface.NMR is easy to design and economical for HR culture for scaling up. Principle of NMR is nutrient mass transfer to root surface in mist form with droplet size 0.5-30 μm which appeared as gas. (8).The first NMR was used to culture the hairy roots by Dilorio et al. (4).
II. MIST AS NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENT:
Mist is phenomenon caused by small droplet of liquid suspended in air. Gases like O2, CO2 and C2H4 are most important to plants, but all are poorly soluble in
water; their solubility decreases with increasing nutrient concentration and temperature (9,10) and oxygen is about 25 times less soluble than CO2. To ensure rapid growth of roots, high levels of oxygen are required while excessive CO2 accumulation must be prevented as the level of respiration increases with increasing root biomass. Liquids therefore limit the amount of gas available to growing roots. High- quality gas transfer into liquid media can be obtained by either dispersing the liquid into the gas or by dispersing the gas into the liquid. This has been observed that in liquid-based reactors, gas is dispersed into the liquid phase, while in a mist reactor liquid is dispersed into the gas phase.
III. MIST GENERATION
Liquid dispersion can be achieved using a number of different methods including a spinning disk, a compressed gas atomizer, and an ultrasonic droplet generator. The spinning disk produces a wide range of droplet sizes (>100micron) and is mainly used in whole plant aeroponic systems (11).
Smaller droplets have a larger surface to volume ratio that facilitates gas transport into liquid. Compared to the spinning disk, compressed gas atomizers can produce rather uniform amounts of very small droplets thereby ensuring good gas transfer into the liquid and thus, to the roots. Unfortunately to obtain small droplets, the nozzle orifice must be small and, as a result, it clogs easily. Therefore Ultrasonic transducer is most suitable method for mist generation (size ~3-20μm) and meant for good gas transfer (12).
The most important parameter in ultrasonic transducer or nozzle spray method is droplet size the following comparative chart (table 1) of spray, fog
Nutrient Mist Reactor: A Remarkable New Approach To Grow Hairy Roots In Reactor 8
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