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Photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red 4 using a titanium dioxide membrane supported on a porous ceramic tube
Wen-Yu Wanga, Agus Irawanb, Young Kub,*
aDepartment of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Jifong E. Road, Wufong Township, Taichung County, Taiwan
bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Keywords: Photocatalytic Titanium dioxide Membrane Cross-flow Dead-end
A photocatalytic membrane supported on a porous ceramic tube was described, in which permeation of solutes through the membrane and tube and photocatalytic reaction occur simultaneously. In this photocatalytic membrane reactor, TiO2 catalyst was coated on the surface of a porous ceramic tube and all experiments were conducted in one pass dead-end system. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate the predominance of dead-end operation and to determine the reaction kinetics model of the photocatalytic reaction. Acid Red 4 (AR 4) dye was used as a model pollutant. A detailed study of physical parameters including flow configurations (dead-end and cross-flow), flow rate, initial dye concentra- tion, light intensity and catalyst loading has been performed to obtain the reaction kinetics. The simultaneous effect of light intensity and catalyst loading was also determined experimentally. Experiments were also conducted to compare the photocatalytic degra- dation of AR 4 in the dead-end and cross-flow system.
The major findings of this study are: (1) the decomposition ratios for dead-end system were three and five times higher than cross-flow system at flow rates of 6.67 10 8 and 4.00 10 7 m3/s, respectively. (2) The decomposition ratio increased with increasing cata- lyst loading and light intensity, but remained constant at higher catalyst loading. (3) The decomposition ratio was found to be decreased with increasing flow rate.
In the past decade, considerable attention has been focused on using nanocrystalline TiO2 as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants (Blake, 2001). The photo- catalyst titanium dioxide is a wide bandgap (3.2 eV) semi- conductor, corresponding to radiation in the near-UV range. An electron-hole pair formation occurs within the conduction and valence bands of TiO2 after the absorption of UV radia- tion. The positive hole is apparently able to oxidize a water molecule to hydroxyl radical (Fujishima and Honda, 1972). The
hydroxyl radical, in turn, is a powerful oxidant. The oxidation of organic contaminants seems to be mediated by a series of reactions initiated by hydroxyl radical on the TiO2 surface. However, recombination of the separated electron and hole can occur either in the volume or on the surface of the semiconductor particle accompanied with heat releasing (Linsebigler et al., 1995). For the photooxidation reaction to occur, both TiO2 and an UV light source are necessary.
The semiconductor catalyst can be employed as in the form of colloid or as an immobilized film. The types of pho- toreactors include slurry reactor (Puma and Yue, 2001),
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