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Publication Title | A unity feedback system with a process with varying parameter

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FIGURE DP12.1 Turntable control.

FIGURE DP12.2

A unity feedback system with a process with varying parameter K.

(b)

K s(s + 5)

R<s)

H Q — •

>'(.v)

R(s)

• Y(.s)

for a ramp input is zero. Also, the settling time (with a 2% criterion) must be less than 3 seconds for the ramp input. We want the controller to be

electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It lay beyond the reach of any instrument as simple and direct as the familiar light microscope. New microscopes, typified by the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), are now available [3].

The precision of position control required is in the order of nanometers. The STM relies on piezo- electric sensors that change size when an electric voltage across the material is changed. The "aper- ture" in the STM is a tiny tungsten probe, its tip ground so fine that it may consist of only a single atom and measure just 0.2 nanometer in width. Piezoelectric controls maneuver the tip to within a nanometer or two of the surface of a conducting specimen—so close that the electron clouds of the atom at the probe tip and of the nearest atom of the speci- men overlap. A feedback mechanism senses the varia- tions in tunneling current and varies the voltage applied to a third, z-axis, control. The z-axis piezo- electric moves the probe vertically to stabilize the current and to maintain a constant gap between the

2

KD(s + 65 + 18)

Gc(s) =

(a) Select KD and obtain the ramp response. Plot the root locus as KD varies, (b) If K„, changes to one-half of its normal value and Gc(s) remains as designed in part (a), obtain the ramp response of the system. Compare the results of parts (a) and (b) and discuss the robustness of the system.

DP12.4 Objects smaller than the wavelengths of visible light are a staple of contemporary science and tech- nology. Biologists study single molecules of protein or DNA; materials scientists examine atomic-scale flaws in crystals; microelectronics engineers lay out circuit patterns only a few tenths of atoms thick. Until recently, this minute world could be seen only by cumbersome, often destructive methods, such as

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Controller

Gc(s)

Process

Position signal

(a)

T,U)

Torque motor

Position sensor

975

Image | A unity feedback system with a process with varying parameter



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