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Search Completed | Title | Post-combustion CO2 Capture with Chemical Absorption: A State-of-the-art Review
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Text | Post-combustion CO2 Capture with Chemical Absorption: A State-of-the-art Review | 001
Post-combustion CO2 Capture with Chemical Absorption: A State-of-the-art Review
M. Wanga* A. Lawala, P. Stephensonb, J. Siddersb, C. Ramshawa and H. Yeunga
aProcess Systems Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, UK. bRWE npower, UK.
* Corresponding author. Tel: +0044 1234 754655; Fax: +0044 1234 754685; Email address: email@example.com
Global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly. CO2 emissions have an impact on global climate change. Effective CO2 emission abatement strategies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are required to combat this trend. There are three major approaches for CCS: Post-combustion capture, Pre-combustion capture and Oxyfuel process. Post-combustion capture offers some advantages as existing combustion technologies can still be used without radical changes on them. This makes post- combustion capture easier to implement as a retrofit option (to existing power plants) compared to the other two approaches. Therefore, post-combustion capture is probably the first technology that will be deployed. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art assessment of the research work carried out so far in post-combustion capture with chemical absorption. The technology will be introduced first, followed by required preparation of flue gas from power plants to use this technology. The important research programmes worldwide and the experimental studies based on pilot plants will be reviewed. This is followed by an overview of various studies based on modelling and simulation. Key issues such as energy consumption and plant flexibility will be included. Then the focus is turned to review development of different solvents and process intensification. Based on these, we try to predict challenges and potential new developments from different aspects such as new solvents, pilot plants, process heat integration (to improve efficiency), modelling and simulation, process intensification and government policy impact.
Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), CO2 Capture, Chemical Absorption, Power Plant, Modelling and Simulation, Pilot Plant, Post-combustion, Process Intensification, Review
CO2 is the main greenhouse gas. CO2 emissions have an impact on global climate change. Global concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere have increased from pre-industrialisation levels of approximately 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in around 1860 to approximately 316 ppmv in 1958 and rapidly to approximately 369 ppmv today (UNEP, 2005). Global CO2 concentration is predicted to rise to above 750 ppmv by 2100 if no action is taken to address the current situation.
Power generation from fossil fuel-fired power plants (e.g. coal and natural gas) is the single largest source of CO2 emissions (Freund, 2003). However, fossil fuel fired power plants play a vital role in meeting energy demands. For instance, coal-fired power plants could be operated flexibly in meeting with varying demand. With growing concerns over the increasing atmospheric concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, effective CO2 emission abatement strategies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are required to combat this trend.
CCS is a “process consisting of the separation of CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere.” (IPCC, 2005). From this definition, CCS consists of three basic stages: (a) Separation of CO2; (b) Transportation and (c) Storage. There are
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