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Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 14 (2009) 3–15
Bioavailability of nanoparticles in nutrient and nutraceutical delivery Edgar Acosta ⁎
University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Canada
Received 25 October 2007; received in revised form 30 January 2008; accepted 30 January 2008 Available online 7 February 2008
The field of nanoparticle delivery systems for nutrients and nutraceuticals with poor water solubility has been expanding, almost exponentially, over the last five years, and some of these technologies are now in the process of being incorporated in food products. The market projections for these technologies suggest a multifold increase in their commercial potential over the next five years. The interest in the pharmaceutical and food- related applications of these technologies has sparked tremendous developments in mechanical (top-down) and chemical (bottom-up) processes to obtain such nanoparticle systems. Mechanical approaches are capable of producing nanoparticles, typically in the 100–1000 nm range, whereas chemical methods tend to produce 10–100 nm particles. Despite these technological developments, there is a lack of information regarding the basis of design for such nanoparticle systems. Fundamental thermodynamic and mass transfer equations reveal that, in order to generate a broad spectrum delivery system, nanoparticles with 100 nm diameter (or less) should be produced. However, experimental data reveal that, in some cases, even nanoparticles in the 100–1000 nm range are capable of producing substantial improvement in the bioavailability of the active ingredients. In most cases, this improvement in bioavailability seems to be linked to the direct uptake of the nanoparticle. Furthermore, direct nanoparticle uptake is controlled by the size and surface chemistry of the nanoparticle system. The use of this direct nanoparticle uptake, in particular for soluble but poorly absorbed ingredients, is one of the areas that needs to be explored in the future, as well as the potential side effects of these nanoparticle carriers.
© 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Lipid nanoparticles; Bioavailability; Dissolution; Uptake; Peyer's patches; BCS dissolution models; Vitamins; Minerals; Food fortification
The field of food nanotechnology has experienced signifi- cant growth over the last five years. Such growth has been fuelled by the potential of harnessing the large surface area to volume ratio of these materials to improve the bioavailability of active ingredients, introduce controlled/target release, improve sensory aspects, and others [1•,2,3•,4••,5]. The growth of the field is partially quantified in Fig. 1, where the cumulative number of articles and patents containing the keywords “food” and “nanoparticles” in their abstract or the claims (in the case of patents) is presented as a function of year of publication. As indicated by the trends in Fig. 1, most of the growth in the food
⁎ Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, The University of Toronto, 200 College Street, room 131, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S3E5. Tel.: +1 416 946 0742; fax: +1 416 978 8605.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
1359-0294/$ - see front matter © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.cocis.2008.01.002
nanotechnology field has taken place after the year 2000 as a result of numerous nanotechnology initiatives of the late nineties, and the development of food-grade additives suitable for nanoparticle production.
Currently, the market of nanotechnology products in the food industry approaches the US$ 1 billion (most of this on nano- particle coatings for packaging technologies, health promoting products, and beverages) and has the potential to grow to more than US$20 billion in the next decade [1•]. Recent reviews present an excellent summary of the research groups, private and government organizations that have been spearheading the field of food nanotechnology [1•,4••]. Most of the work that these research groups have generated over the last five years on nanoparticle vehicles has concentrated on developing produc- tion methods inspired on pharmaceutical drug delivery systems [4••]. The challenge in developing such production methods has been to replace some of the polymers and surfactants used in the pharmaceutical industry with food-grade alternatives.
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