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Publication Title | HiGee Liquid-Liquid Micromixing in SDR and STT

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Liquid-Liquid Micromixing in SDR and STT

Project Leaders: Kamelia Boodhoo (Newcastle University) & Melissa Assirelli (Huntsman)

Researcher(s): Somaieh Mohammadi & Lorenzo Turetta (Newcastle University), Kimberly de Cuba (Huntsman) E-mail:;

Partners: Huntsman, Akzo Nobel, DSM, Newcastle University, TU Dortmund

Budget: 1,181 k€ (total HiGee project)

Duration: 10-2014 – 06.2016


• To characterise micromixing efficiency for flow in Spinning Disk Reactor (SDR) and Spinning Tube-in- Tube (STT) in terms of the segregation index Xs for a range of hydrodynamic conditions and compare their performance against a conventional stirred tank vessel

• To develop a micromixing time model for the continuous flow technologies

Project scope:

• Use of perchloric acid as the limiting reagent in the well-established competitive, parallel Villermaux– Dushman reaction system

• Experimental data gathering under a range of operating conditions including spinning speeds, reagent flowrates, acid concentrations, liquid viscosity and disc surface textures

• The ultimate aim is to obtain micromixing time for various operating conditions by formulating a continuous flow model for consumption of the H+ ions in solution


• Processes where micromixing is key e.g. crystallisation, polymerisation, competitive organic reactions, nanoparticulate formation in pharma, food, polymers industries etc.

Liquid film

Heating/cooling fluid

Spinning Disc Reactor set-up

Spinning Disc

Product outlet




Xs values for SDR ([H+]=1 M)

connecti on to

heater 0.55 unit 0.5

Spinning Tube-in-Tube set-up 0.45

0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2


9mL/s,water, grooved

9 mL/s, 65% glyc, grooved

20 mL/s, water, grooved

20 mL/s, 65% glyc, grooved

Initial predictions indicate micromixing times in the range of 30 ms- 300 ms in the SDR


• The intense mixing arising from the vigorous fluid dynamics engendered by rotation of surfaces such as in the SDR and the STT is of great interest in processes including polymerization and precipitation of nanoparticles where product quality is highly dependent on micromixing. It is important therefore to quantify the micromixing ability of the SDR and the STT to enable a quick assessment of their potential performance under various conditions of operation.

On-going work:

• Correlation of tm and with power dissipation 

• Comparison of SDR and STT performance with other

mixing devices









Better micromixing conditions

SDR rotational Speed (rpm)

Institute for Sustainable Process Technology

Segregation index, Xs

Image | HiGee Liquid-Liquid Micromixing in SDR and STT

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