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Publication Title | Theories for the Origin of the Universe Astronomers now estimate that the whole universe contains at least 125 billion galaxies

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Gr. 9 Unit 1 Space

Chapter 12 Notes

Theories for the Origin of the Universe

Astronomers now estimate that the whole universe contains at least 125 billion galaxies.

Galaxy

• A huge collection of gases, dust, and billions of stars held together by gravity.

• The Sun and all the planets are in the Milky Way galaxy.

Galaxies can be classified according to their shapes. Example: 1.Spiral

•looks like a pinwheel

•The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy 2.Elliptical

•ranges from a perfect sphere to a stretched ellipse •contain oldest stars

•largest galaxies are this shape

Solar system – this consists of the Sun, the planets and all the other bodies that revolve around it. Our solar system formed more than 4.5 billion years ago.

Universe- This includes all of the objects throughout space. There are over 125 million galaxies in the universe.

Red shift

Between 1918 and 1929, the development of much more powerful telescopes suddenly allowed astronomers to see more celestial bodies and in more detail.

One pioneer in space exploration during this period was American astronomer Edwin Hubble. He was the first astronomer to identify other galaxies besides the Milky Way.

Then he made an astonishing discovery. He noticed that all the galaxies he was observing were not staying still. Rather, they were moving away from each other and the further the galaxy was from Earth, the faster it moved.

Hubble figured this out by using a tool known as red shift analysis. This involves a shifting of light from an object toward the red (longer wavelength) end of the spectrum as the object moves away from Earth.

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Image | Theories for the Origin of the Universe Astronomers now estimate that the whole universe contains at least 125 billion galaxies



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