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wjpmr, 2016,2(5), 83-88.

SJIF Impact Factor: 3.535

Review Article

Research

ISSN 2455-3301

WJPMR

WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL

Daisy et al . World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

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MULTIPLE EMULSIONS A COPREHENSIVE REVIEW Sivapriya S., Daisy P.A,* Boby Johns G., Praveen Raj R., Noby Thomas and Betty Carla

Department of Pharmaceutics, St.Joseph's College of Pharmacy, Cherthala, Alappuzha, Kerala, India.

Article Received on 02/07/2016 Article Revised on 25/07/2016 Article Accepted on 17/08/2016

*Corresponding Author: Dr. Daisy P. Augustine

Department of Pharmaceutics, St.Joseph's College of Pharmacy, Cherthala, Alappuzha, Kerala, India.

ABSTRACT

Multiple emulsions are also known as emulsions of emulsions, liquid membrane system or double emulsion. These have been proposed to have numerous uses including their use for enhancement of bioavailability or as a prolonged drug delivery system. Multiple emulsions are often stabilized using a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfactants. The ratio of these surfactants is important in achieving stable multiple emulsions. The two major types of multiple emulsions are the w/o/w and o/w/o emulsions. The most common multiple emulsions are of W/O/W type which is widely used for pharmaceutical purposes.[2, 3]

KEYWORDS: Multiple emulsions, prolonged drug delivery system.

INTRODUCTION

Multiple emulsions are defined as emulsions in which both types of emulsions, i.e. water-in oil (w/o) and oil-in- water (o/w) exist simultaneously. They combine the properties of both w/o and o/w emulsions. These have been described as heterogeneous systems of one immiscible liquid dispersed in another in the form of droplets, which usually have diameters greater than 1 μm. These two liquids forming a system are characterized by their low thermodynamic stability. Multiple emulsions are very complex systems as the drops of dispersed phase themselves contain even smaller droplets, which normally consist of a liquid miscible and in most cases identical with the continuous phase. Both hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifiers are used for the formation of multiple emulsions.

Multiple emulsions are promising in many fields, particularly in pharmaceutics and in separation science. Their potential biopharmaceutical applications include their use as adjuvant vaccines, as prolonged drug delivery systems, as sorbent reservoirs in drug overdose treatments and in mobilization of enzymes. Multiple emulsions were also investigated for cosmetics for their potential advantages of prolonged release of active agent, incorporation of incompatible materials and protection of active ingredients by dispersion in internal phase. The droplets of the dispersed phase contain even smaller dispersed droplets themselves, therefore also called as "emulsions of emulsions". Each dispersed globule in the double emulsion forms a vesicular structure with single or multiple aqueous compartments separated from the aqueous phase by a layer of oil phase compartments. In

multiple emulsion system solute has to transverse from inner miscible phase to outer miscible phase through the middle immiscible organic phase, so it is also called as liquid membrane system. The two major types of multiple emulsions are the water-oil-water (w/o/w) and oil-water-oil (o/w/o) double emulsions. The most common multiple emulsions are of W/O/W type, although some specific applications O/W/O emulsions can also be prepared.[14,2,5]

Multiple emulsions may find many potential applications in various fields such as chemistry, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and food. These emulsions have been investigated as controlled-release drug delivery systems (DDS) as ‘emulsion liquid membranes’ for simultaneous liquid extraction and stripping of metals, organic acids and antibiotics, as microcapsules for the protection and controlled release of functional food ingredients, for the formulation of reduced-calorie food emulsion etc. Other applications include the use of multiple emulsions as intermediate products to the preparation of inorganic particles, lipid nanoparticles, polymeric microspheres, biodegradable microspheres, gel micro beads, and vesicles such as polymerosomes.

For medical applications, a water-soluble therapeutic component can be solubilised within the inner W1 phase of the emulsion globule, which showed prolonged release properties and lessen toxic effects. The stability and release properties of double emulsion can be improved by varying the type and concentrations of surfactants. Combining targeted delivery with prolonged release would present a tremendous benefit in cancer therapy. The use of double emulsions to accomplish this

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