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5 Textile Dyeing Wastewater Treatment
Zongping Wang, Miaomiao Xue, Kai Huang and Zizheng Liu
Huazhong University of Science and Technology China
Textile industry can be classified into three categories viz., cotton, woolen, and synthetic fibers depending upon the used raw materials. The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in China.
The textile dyeing industry consumes large quantities of water and produces large volumes of wastewater from different steps in the dyeing and finishing processes. Wastewater from printing and dyeing units is often rich in color, containing residues of reactive dyes and chemicals, such as complex components,many aerosols,high chroma,high COD and BOD concentration as well as much more hard-degradation materials. The toxic effects of dyestuffs and other organic compounds, as well as acidic and alkaline contaminants, from industrial establishments on the general public are widely accepted. At present, the dyes are mainly aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, with color-display groups and polar groups. The structure is more complicated and stable, resulting in greater difficulty to degrade the printing and dyeing wastewater (Shaolan Ding et al.,2010).
According to recent statistics, China's annual sewage has already reached 390 million tons, including 51% of industrial sewage, and it has been increasing with the rate of 1% every year. Each year about 70 billion tons of wastewater from textile and dyeing industry are produced and requires proper treatment before being released into the environment (State Environmental Protection Administration ,1994).
Therefore, understanding and developing effective printing-dye industrial wastewater treatment technology is environmentally important.
1.1 Textile printing and dyeing process
Textile Printing and dyeing processes include pretreatment, dyeing / printing, finishing and other technologies.
Pre-treatment includes desizing, scouring, washing, and other processes. Dyeing mainly aims at dissolving the dye in water, which will be transferred to the fabric to produce colored fabric under certain conditions. Printing is a branch of dyeing which generally is defined as ‘localized dyeing’ i.e. dyeing that is confirmed to a certain portion of the fabric that constitutes the design. It is really a form of dyeing in which the essential reactions involved are the same as those in dyeing. In dyeing, color is applied in the form of solutions, whereas color is applied in the form of a thick paste of the dye in printing. Both natural and synthetic textiles are subjected to a variety of finishing processes. This is done to improve specific properties in the finished fabric and involves the use of a large number of finishing agents for softening, cross- linking, and waterproofing. All of the finishing processes contribute to water pollution. In
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