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Publication Title | Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications

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Review

Food & Function

The main factors limiting the use of bioactives in food applications are shown in Fig. 2. Bioactive ingredients are gen- erally prone to degradation, both during storage and food pro- cessing, as many of them are physically, chemically and/or enzymatically unstable leading to their degradation or trans- formation with the consequent loss of bioactivity. In many cases the mechanism involved in the degradation of these bioactive molecules is very complex and still unknown.5,8 Wu et al.9 reported the reduction of the anthocyanin content in blackberry fruits after six months of canned and jam storage and also after drying treatment. Various types of cereals (wheat, barley and oat) were also tested for the content of bio- logically active compounds, such as tocopherols, phenolic compounds and microelements, and after hydrothermal processing, the concentration of these molecules severely decreased.10 Rawson et al.11 described major losses of bio- active compounds after processing exotic fruits such as mangoes, açaí, pineapple and pitanga, subjecting them to heat treatments, pasteurization and drying, canning and even to storage processing steps. All these processes affect, to a lesser or greater extent, the stability, chemical characteristics, con- centration, and even antioxidant activity of a number of com- pounds such as vitamins and phenolic compounds. Another study that describes the modifications occurring in fruits and vegetables during the processing steps was published by Nicoli

Fig. 1

tendency to grow. Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands are considered the most important countries within the European functional food market.7

1.2. The problems related to the use of free bioactives

Despite the known beneficial health effects of natural bioactive matrices and isolated individual compounds, as will be dis- cussed in this section, they show some fragility that has to be considered regarding their direct use or incorporation into foods.

Number of research articles and reviews, and patents published in the period from 1970 to 2014 regarding functional foods (obtained on web of science, October 2014; keyword: functional food).

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Maria Inês Dias

Maria Inês Dias has been a PhD student at Mountain Research Centre (CIMO) of the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, REQUIMTE and Laboratory of Separation Reaction Engineering (LSRE) of the University of Porto since 2013. She obtained her degree in Biotechnological Engin- eering in 2009 and her Master’s degree in Biotechnology in 2011, both at Polytechnic Institute of Bragança. Her main research interests are improvement of sec-

Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira is Coordi- nator Professor at Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal). She is a member of the Board of Directors of the Mountain Research Centre (CIMO) and the principal investigator of the Food Safety and Technology Group. She is an associate editor of Food & Function (a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry). She obtained her degree in Bio- chemistry (1996) at the Univer- sity of Porto, Master’s in

ondary metabolite production through in vitro culture techniques, chemical characterization and bioactive properties of edible plants, and microencapsulation of phenolic fractions.

Sciences (1999), PhD in Sciences—Chemistry (2003), and habilita- tion in Sciences—Chemistry (2011) at the University of Minho (Portugal). She is the principal investigator of several financed research projects, and an evaluator of international and national research projects, post-doc and PhD grants. She had supervised several post-doc, PhD and master’s students in the BioChemCore group. She has received awards from several different organiz- ations such as Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. She has pub- lished over 260 papers in refereed journals and is a highly cited scientist (top 1%) in Agricultural Sciences (Researcher ID: E-8500- 2013; ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4910-4882; SCOPUS ID: 7102135224). Her main research interests are nutraceuticals and functional foods, chemistry of natural matrices/products, and emerging technologies for conservation of food matrices.

1036 | Food Funct., 2015, 6, 1035–1052

This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015

Published on 10 February 2015. Downloaded by Instituto Politecnico de Braganca on 20/10/2015 16:48:48.

Image | Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications



review function factors bioactives applications bioactive redients erally degradation storage
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