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Publication Title | Photocatalytic Water Treatment by Titanium Dioxide: Recent Updates

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Catalysts 2012, 2, 572-601; doi:10.3390/catal2040572

Review

Photocatalytic Water Treatment by Titanium Dioxide: Recent Updates

Manoj A. Lazar 1,2,*, Shaji Varghese 3 and Santhosh S. Nair 1,2

1

2 3

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: manoj.ainikalkannath@monash.edu or manojlazar2005@gmail.com; Tel.: +61-3-990-26411; Fax: +61-3-990-26738.

Received: 7 October 2012; in revised form: 7 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012

Abstract: Photocatalytic water treatment using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (NTO) is a well-known advanced oxidation process (AOP) for environmental remediation. With the in situ generation of electron-hole pairs upon irradiation with light, NTO can mineralize a wide range of organic compounds into harmless end products such as carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic ions. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of pollutants by NTO is a topic of debate and the mostly reporting Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics must accompanied with proper experimental evidences. Different NTO morphologies or surface treatments on NTO can increase the photocatalytic efficiency in degradation reactions. Wisely designed photocatalytic reactors can decrease energy consumption or can avoid post-separation stages in photocatalytic water treatment processes. Doping NTO with metals or non-metals can reduce the band gap of the doped catalyst, enabling light absorption in the visible region. Coupling NTO photocatalysis with other water-treatment technologies can be more beneficial, especially in large-scale treatments. This review describes recent developments in the field of photocatalytic water treatment using NTO.

Keywords: titanium dioxide; advanced oxidation process; photocatalysis; water treatment; degradation; Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics; photocatalytic reactor; doping

School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill VIC, 3842, Australia; E-Mail: santhosh.nair@monash.edu

School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton VIC, 3800, Australia

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Universitàdi Cagliari, Complesso Universitario Monserrato, CA 09042, Italy; E-Mail: shajivarg@gmail.com

OPEN ACCESS

catalysts

ISSN 2073-4344

www.mdpi.com/journal/catalysts

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