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Publication Title | Patented Microencapsulation Techniques And Its Application Garg Tarun*, Singh Onkar, Arora Saahil, Murthy RSR

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Review Article ISSN: 0974-6943

Garg Tarun et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011,4(7),2097-2102

Available online through

http://jprsolutions.info

Patented Microencapsulation Techniques And Its Application Garg Tarun*, Singh Onkar, Arora Saahil, Murthy RSR

Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga (Punjab), India

Received on: 12-04-2011; Revised on: 18-05-2011; Accepted on:21-06-2011

ABSTRACT

Microencapsulation is a process by which very tiny particles or droplets of solid or liquid material are coated or surrounded with a continuous film of polymeric material. These micro-capsules have a number of benefits such as converting liquids to solids, providing environmental protection, separating reactive compounds and improved material handling properties. In this article many important techniques for microencapsulation like pan coating, polymerization, salting out, air- suspension coating, hot-melt etc. are described with their patented applications and their patented examples. Microencapsulation technologies are applied in any area of the industry. It can be found in: Cell immobilization, Beverage production, Protection of molecules from other compounds, Drug delivery, Quality and safety in food, agricultural & environmental sectors, pharmaceuticals etc. Patented Microencapsulation techniques are used to increase the duration of action and stability of the drug, as a heat delivery vehicle, in sustain release of water soluble particles, to administration of neuroactive agents

Key words: Microencapsulation, Environmental protection, Cell immobilization, Pharmaceuticals, Drug targeting etc. INTRODUCTION

Microencapsulation is a process by which very tiny particles or droplets of solid or liquid material are coated or surrounded with a continuous film of polymeric material. These micro-capsules have a number of benefits such as converting liquids to solids, providing environmental protection, separating reactive com- pounds and improved material handling properties. Active materials are then encapsulated in micron-sized capsules of barrier polymers (gelatin, plastic, wax ...). In the process of microencapsulation, tiny particles or droplets are sur- rounded by a coating to give small capsules with many useful properties. The material inside the microcapsule is referred to as Core, whereas the wall is called a shell, coating, or membrane [1]. An appropriate motto for studying micro encapsulation would be “Small is better”. Entrapment of a biologically active substance (from DNA to entire cell or group of cells) is known as Bioencapsulation, which is a part of microencapsulation [2]. Micro encapsula- tion involves the coatings of particles ranging dimensions from several tenths of a micron to 5000 micron in size and provides the means of converting liquids to solids, of altering surface and colloidal properties of providing environmental protection and of controlling the release characteristics or availability of coated materials [3]. The process targeted at creating a barrier between the core mate- rial in fine powder form or droplet form and its environment known as High performance micro encapsulation. Micro encapsulation is a process by which solids or liquids or even gases may be encapsulated into microscopic size par- ticles through the formation of thin coating of wall material around the sub- stance being encapsulated [4].

REASONS FOR MICROENCAPSULATION [5]

(1) In some cases, the core must be isolated from its surroundings, because

• As in isolating vitamins from the deteriorating effects,

• Retarding evaporation of a volatile core,

• Improving the handling properties of a sticky material or

• Isolating a reactive core from chemical attack.

(2) In other cases, the objective is not to isolate the core completely but to control the rate at which it leaves the microcapsule, as in the controlled release of drugs or pesticides.

(3) As masking the taste or odor of the core,

(4) As complex as increasing the selectivity of an adsorption or extraction process.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MICROENCAPSULATION ADVANTAGES [3,6]

1. Converts liquid into free flowing solid and pseudo solid which improves han- dling and storage like Eprazinone, Clofibrate, Castor oil, Cod-liver oil etc.

2. Reduces volatility of substances like methyl salicylate, peppermint oil, flavors, perfumes etc.

3. Avoid incompatibilities in drug combinations like aspirin and chlorpheniramine maleate, eutectic combinations etc.

4. Masks unpleasant taste of drug like penicillin derivatives like ampicillin, ami- nophylline, prednisolone, cod liver oil etc.

5. Mask unpleasant or unacceptable odor of cores like castor oil, cod liver oil, methionine, cysteine etc.

6. Reduces gastro intestinal irritation due to irritant drugs like ferrous sulphate, potassium chloride, paracetamol, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, nitrofurantoin etc.

7. Reduce hygroscopicity of core like sodium chloride etc.

8. Provides sustain / prolong / delay / control drug release.

9. Reduces hazards to operators in case of toxic chemicals like insecticides, pesti-

cides and sensitizers like penicillins etc.

10. Improve flow properties, compaction and compressibility of the core like Vita-

mins etc.

11. For immobilization of enzymes for improving their stability and retention of

activity.

12. By this chemical incompatible ingredients can produce in single form like

Aspirin, Citric acid etc.

DISADVANTAGE [3,7]

1. Quite expensive,

2. The technique is not adaptable to all core materials,

3. Sometimes coating may be uncompleted and discontinuous,

4. No single method can be applied to all core materials,

5. Because of the inadequate stability and shelf life, Sensitive pharmaceuticals

cannot used,

6. For different cores and different applications, Individual design approach is

required,

7. Coated products may have non reproducible and unstable release characters, may

be too bulky,

8. Limited choice of safe, approved, biocompatible and biodegradable materials, 9. May damage the coat or the product due to mechanical stress like compression,

compaction, packaging, transport, handling etc.

10. Micro particles may not be suitable for parenteral applications due to size

restrictions,

11. Need of sterilization, necessity of non-allergic, biocompatible and biodegradable

nature of the carrier etc.

12. (Most information on microencapsulation is still patented and hence there may

be difficulty in choosing suitable technique and methodology for individual

applications,

13. There may be difficulties in scale up and large scale manufacturing the process.

TECHNIQUES TO MANUFACTURE MICROENCAPSULATION

Micro encapsulation is a process whereby particles of an active agent are surface coated to provide changes in the physicochemical properties of the active

*Corresponding author.

Garg Tarun

Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga (Punjab), India

Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.4.Issue 7. July 2011

2097-2102

Image | Patented Microencapsulation Techniques And Its Application Garg Tarun*, Singh Onkar, Arora Saahil, Murthy RSR



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