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Journal of Environmental Protection, 2012, 3, 1302-1309 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.310148 Published Online October 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/jep)
Shoreline Instability Study on Fun Island Resorts, Maldives
E. W. K. Loh, Thoufeeg Usamath, T. J. Deepak
School of Civil Engineering, Linton University College, Mantin, Malaysia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received June 25th, 2012; revised July 27th, 2012; accepted August 29th, 2012
Shoreline changes induced by erosion and accretion are natural processes that take place over a range of time scales. They may occur in response to smaller-scale events, such as storms, regular wave action, tides and winds, or in response to large-scale events such as glaciation that significantly alter sea levels (rise/fall) and tectonic activities that cause coastal land subsidence or emergence. Environmental related issues are one of the major problems which the native islanders of the Maldives are facing throughout the history. The global warming and sea level rise have been a threat for the people of these islands. The scope of this paper is to find the shoreline instability of the coastal area along Fun Is- land Resort Maldives and aim is to find the abrasion, erosion on the coastal area of the island throughout the monsoon season. The coastal structures adopted as a protection against erosion has been damaged due to the 2004 Tsunami and the groynes are still to be repaired. A map was generated with the data collected on the topographic survey which shows that the maximum height of the vegetation line was found to be just +2.15 m above Mean Sea Level (MSL). Beach pro- files around the island were taken to access the damage to the shoreline of the island.
Keywords: Erosion; Glaciation; Global Warming; Abrasion; Groynes
The Maldives is an archipelago of 1190 islands which is grouped in double chains of 26 atolls stretching in a North-South direction in the Indian Ocean. The atolls are composed of live coral reefs and sand bars. The Maldives is a country which bears the lowest Mean Sea Level (MSL) in the world which has an average ground level of 1.5 meters above sea level and the maximum natural ground level is 2.3 meters from the sea level. These coral islands are surrounded by the sea which plays a vital role on the change of the coastal areas of the islands.
Development within coastal areas has increased inter- est in erosion problems; it has led to major efforts to manage coastal erosion problems and to restore coastal capacity to accommodate short and long-term changes induced by human activities, extreme events and sea level rise. The erosion problem becomes worse whenever the countermeasures (i.e. hard or soft structural options) applied is inappropriate, improperly designed, built, or maintained and if the effects on adjacent shores are not carefully evaluated. Shoreline changes induced by ero- sion and accretion are natural processes that take place over a range of time scales. They may occur in response to smaller-scale events, such as storms, regular wave action, tides and winds, or in response to large-scale
events such as glaciation that significantly alter sea levels (rise/fall) and tectonic activities that cause coastal land subsidence or emergence. Often erosion is addressed lo- cally at specific places or at regional or jurisdictional boundaries instead of at system boundaries that reflect natural processes. This anomaly is mostly attributable to insufficient knowledge of coastal processes and the pro- tective function of coastal systems.
2. Study Area-Fun Island Resort (FIR)
Fun Island Resort (FIR) (Bodufinolhu) is a 100 room three star resort located on the South Eastern corner of South Male’ Atoll [1-6]. Villa Shipping and Trading Company  further reported that the reef on FIR exists has an area of about 16 km2 and it is large compared to average Maldivian reefs.
However since the beginning of FIR development in 1983, number of coastal structures have been constructed to maintain white sandy beaches and to protect the island from erosion . As to improve the status of the FIR beach, one of the beach replenishing projects carried out was in 1998/1999 . This project helped to increase the width of the beach to an average 40 - 50 metres all around the island and at 2003 FIR is about 12 hectares in area . CDE had agreed that FIR has undergone major
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